Carbohydrates serve as the main energy source for the body in order to perform various activities. On average every 1 gram of carbohydrate will produce 4 calories. The average human need for calories is as much as 1200-2000 calories. Calories derived from carbohydrates are recommended as much as 45% -60% of all caloric needs. However, currently the average population of Indonesia consume 70% -80% carbohydrates. Excess consumption of unused carbohydrates will be stored as fat. Learn more about calories can be read in the following article: Calculate your body’s calories.
In the carbohydrate can be obtained Glikemin Index (IG). This figure indicates a content that can increase blood sugar levels. The higher the IG score, the food will increase blood sugar faster. While on carbohydrates with low IG numbers will give a sense of satiety longer so it can prevent the desire to eat. Examples of carbohydrates with high IG are bread, corn and potatoes. Meanwhile, carbohydrates with low IG is wheat and brown rice.
Protein serves as a useful component for growth, wound healing, cell regeneration, producing enzymes and hormones for the body’s metabolism as well as an energy source. Lack of protein will interfere with growth, causing bone loss and hair loss.
Proteins can be obtained from animals or from plants. Proteins derived from animals are called animal proteins, such as meat, milk or eggs. While the protein from plants is called vegetable protein contained in nuts. Animal proteins contain more essential amino acids than vegetable proteins.
The weight of protein in the body is about 1/6 of a person’s body weight. Protein is the second largest component of the human body after water. Everyday, the human need for calories is as much as 1 gram for every 1 kg of a person’s weight. On average 1 gram of protein will produce 4 calories.
In order to get the maximum protein, avoid cooking with high temperatures and use a lot of oil because it will damage the existing protein. It is recommended to process protein foods by grilling or steaming.
Fats function as energy reserves and to protect organs. Sufficient fat requirement is useful to maintain healthy skin, hair, maintain body temperature, dissolve vitamin A, D, E, K and help the body’s metabolism work well. One gram of fat can produce about 90 calories. Fat should be met about 20% -30% of total caloric needs.
Fat is divided into 2, namely:
That is unsaturated fat (unsaturated fat) commonly found in nuts, salmon, walnuts and avocados. This good fat has Omega 3 Acid content that is useful to maintain heart health, lower blood pressure and prevent coronary heart disease.
That is Saturated fat (saturated fat) and trans fat (trans fat) contained in meat, offal or fried foods. Excessive bad fats will increase total cholesterol and LDL levels in the blood. High cholesterol can cause heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes triggers.
Consumption of fat in a day should not exceed 35% of the total daily calorie needs and to be beneficial, the fat consumed must be good fats (unsaturated fats).
Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamins and minerals function to organize and support various processes that occur in the body. For example, the process of energy formation or thought process. Vitamins and minerals are found in fruits and vegetables. One serving of fruit yields about 40 calories. It is recommended that every day to consume 5-9 servings of fruit. Fruits and vegetables can also provide fiber.
Fiber primarily works on the digestive process and keeps the body healthy by consuming dietary fiber. Fiber is found in fruits, vegetables, nuts and serelia. Some examples of fruits with high fiber are papaya, soursop, apples and oranges. In vegetables, fiber is found in long beans, broccolim carrots, bean sprouts, and kangkung with the content of 2-5 grams per 100 grams. In nuts and serelia, the fiber contained as much as 4-10 grams per 100 grams.